Pugwash movement of scientists: rapprochement with Astana

Historically, it can be considered a meeting held in Astana, ENU them. L.N. Gumilyov, the rector of the university Yerlan Sydykova with the delegation of representatives of the Pugwash movement of scientists led by Paolo COTTA RAMUSINO (in the picture on the left). Here, for the first time in the history of our country, the idea of ​​creating the Kazakhstan Committee of the Pugwash Science Movement (PDU) was voiced. But after all, a nuclear-free world, the termination of trials that are causing ominous harm to mankind and the environment - these issues are understandable for Kazakhstan and are not close to hearsay.

With the attainment of independence, Kazakhstan closed the topic of atomic tests for itself

For a long time the Semipalatinsk test site hung over us for a long time - the pain and suffering of the Kazakh people. Over the entire history, more than 500 tests of atomic energy charges have been conducted at this testing range. Until 1963, explosions were carried out in the open air, after they acquired an underground character. For the well-known scientist-historian, rector Erlan Sydykov, the Semipalatinsk test site is by no means an abstract topic. He himself came from near Semipalatinsk, and, moreover, his native village was only 34 km from the epicenter of the explosions at the training ground.

- As soon as Kazakhstan gained independence in 1991, the first decision of our President was the ban on explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site, - said the rector of the ENU. - And this is an unconditional achievement of our country, which managed to declare this precisely with its first gesture of goodwill! ON. Nazarbayev is the only President who actually closed the test site and put an end to the tests on the territory of his state. This step in many ways allowed Kazakhstan to gain worldwide recognition. And today we are very happy to welcome representatives of the world's most authoritative Pugwash movement to Astana, whose decisions and recommendations are listened to by leaders of many countries. If it is decided to hold its conference in our country, ENU is ready for the most active cooperation, participation in all necessary organizational issues!

Scientists - for the prevention of thermonuclear war and scientific cooperation

The Pugwash movement is a movement of scientists advocating peace, disarmament and international security, for the prevention of a world thermonuclear war and scientific cooperation. The Pugwash movement originated in 1955, when 11 world-famous scientists, including A. Einstein, F. Joliot-Curie, B. Rassel, M. Bourn, P. Brijman, L. Infeld, L. Poling, J. Rotblat with a manifesto calling for a conference against the use of nuclear energy for military purposes. And in 1987, the International Student and Youth Pugwash Movement was established. It includes prominent scientists, whose opinion is the world community.

In this regard, tell a little about Paolo Kott Ramusino. He was born in 1948 in Italy. He received his doctorate in physics in 1971 at the University of Milan and in 1983 became one of the founders of the Italian Union of Scientists for Disarmament (USPID). He is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and the World Academy of Arts and Sciences. His research and teaching experience includes working as a visiting professor at the University of North Carolina, CERN and Harvard University. Paolo Cotta Ramusino is a professor of mathematical physics at the University of Milan and a senior fellow at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics. As a physicist, he studies the mathematical aspects of quantum fields and string theory. Since August 2002, he has been the Executive Director of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.

As Secretary-General of the PDU, he calls for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons and all types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Maintaining the basic principle of the NPT (disarmament, non-proliferation and access to nuclear energy of all Member States) remains an important priority for the PDU. Moreover, taking into account the great experience accumulated during the years of the Cold War by the movement in the development of dialogue, P.Kotta Ramusino stands for continuation of the dialogue of experts with officials in regions where there is a threat of the development or use of nuclear weapons.

The PDU is actively engaged in the situation in the Middle East, South and North-East Asia and pays much attention to the establishment of a zone free of nuclear weapons in the Middle East, the continuation of the dialogue on Palestine and the promotion of dialogue around the Iranian nuclear program. The Secretary-General of the PDU also pays much attention to the situation in South Asia, the risks associated with the presence of nuclear weapons in this region, given the controversial status of Kashmir. He is a recognized expert at the international level in the field of arms control, disarmament and conflict resolution.

"Although the Cold War is long over, the threat of nuclear safety remains ..."

"Nuclear testing is a very serious issue, and Kazakhstan has in its history the experience of holding them," said P. Kotta Ramusino. - Eradicating radiation, eliminating test results is one of the most important tasks facing us. In particular, India and Pakistan have not signed an agreement on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and, as is known, are in conflict with each other, and this can be a problem for the environment and security in general. Also in this region there may be groups that show interest in the seizure of nuclear weapons ... It is important that no country conducts nuclear tests or had it at all! The Pugwash Conference is interested in preventing all risks associated with this aspect. Despite the fact that the Cold War has long ended, the threat of nuclear safety has not been eradicated to the end, and its issue before the world community is very acute.

The conference has a huge prestige in the world

"If we talk about the Conference of the Pugwash Movement, which is held in different countries in different years, and in 2015 it took place in Nagasaki, I would like Kazakhstan, and in particular its capital Astana, to be included in the list of countries holding the conference," said Gadilbek Shalakhmetov , Head of the UNESCO Chair on Ethnic and Religious Tolerance (ENU). - Our department is engaged in many projects in the field of UNESCO, and now it is important for this organization to hold another such conference, which would have once again raised the nuclear threat to the world public once again in a powerful voice. And if this conference will be organized here, unique materials will be made and will be unveiled on it, which was not in any country in the world. In our opinion, the ideology of military conflicts is becoming very dangerous, and it is difficult to imagine the explosion of even the smallest atomic bomb in any of the countries where military clashes are taking place. The world together should not allow this! The Pugwash conference, wherever it goes, has a huge weight.

One of the founders and directors of the Semipalatinsk test site, Kairat Kadyrzhanov, attended the meeting. Kairat Kamalovich in 1970 graduated from the Faculty of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. From 1970 to 1975 he passed internship and postgraduate studies at the Institute of Atomic Energy. I.V. Kurchatov. From 2006 to 2012 he headed the RSE "National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan", coming to this site after Kurchatov. Being in the position of the General Director, Kairat Kadyrzhanov, along with the solution of the current tasks of the enterprise, paid great attention to the problems of rehabilitation of the territory of the former Semipalatinsk test site and the development of Kurchatov.